In the following exercises, we will create some zpools and explore different types of virtual devices . We will also create two different types of ZFS datasets, file systems and volumes. We will customize some properties, snapshot and clone them, and finally perform some upgrades. In the advanced section, we will look at how some of the other Oracle Solaris services, like NFS and FMA are tied into ZFS. Volumes provide a block level interface into the zpool. Instead of creating a file system where you place files and directories, a single object is created and then accessed as if it were a real disk device.
To view contents of zoned dataset you need to start zone or mount it directly. If you are making use of snapshots, You are not able to mount a snapshot created Best Cryptocurrency Exchange 2021 Reviews using Purity, due to it having a duplicate GUID. It is recommened that if you need to use snapshots of ZFS volumes, then use ZFS internal snapshot feature.
- It also looks at the various types of Oracle Solaris ZFS datasets that can be created and when to use each type.
- By default, a ZFS file system is automatically mounted when it is created.
- This is used to designate a set of devices to be used as a spare in case too many errors are reported on a device in a data vdev.
- This article focuses on sharing ZFS file systems using the SMB protocol.
Note that not all properties can be changed (ex. version, free, allocated). Without an argument, ZFS will look at all of the disks attached to the system and will provide a list of pool names that it can import. If it finds two pools of the same name, the unique identifier can be used to select which pool you want imported. See that a second vdev (mirror-1) has been added to the pool.
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There are 8 partitions on it, with partition 0 tagged as “BIOS_boot” and partition 1 tagged as “usr”. The value after the @ denotes the name of the snapshot. This system is currently running ZFS pool version 33. Let’s import the pool, demonstrating another easy to use feature of ZFS.
In this part of the lab we are going to create a mirrored pool and place some data in it. We will then force some data corruption by doing some really dangerous things to the underlying storage. Once we’ve done this, we will watch ZFS correct all of the errors. There are now 2 different 1GB files in /datapool/bob, but df only says 1GB is used. It turns out that mkfile creates a file filled with zeroes.
ZFS I/O performance
In this lab will be be using a VirtualBox guest for all of the exercises. We will be using a combination of flat files and virtual disks for different parts of the lab. Here is a quick overview of the configuration before we get started. As soon as you press Enter, all shares provided by machine solaris11-1 are shown. Part 7 of a series that describes the key features of ZFS in Oracle Solaris 11.1 and provides step-by-step procedures explaining how to use them. This article focuses on sharing ZFS file systems using the SMB protocol.
All of this is done when the pool is created, making ZFS much easier to use than traditional file systems. What we can see from this output that our new pool called datapool has a single ZFS virtual device called raidz1-0. That vdev is comprised of our four disk files that we created in the previous step. File systems can also be explicitly managed through legacy mount interfaces by usingzfs set to set the mountpoint property to legacy.
Using ZFS on Solaris
The device to fsck and fsck pass entries are set to – because the fsck command is not applicable to ZFS file systems. For more information about ZFS data integrity, see Transactional Semantics. ZFS file systems are automatically mounted at boot time without requiring you to edit the /etc/vfstab file. Now you have the make and model, and the partition table. From this, combined with the information gleaned in previous commands, you can put together a map of available disks/partitions , and their corresponding filesystem . The first command displays all snapshots, the second command displays datasets which are depends from some snapshots (have not “-” origin property).
These pools provide all of the storage allocations that are used by the file systems and volumes that will be allocated from the pool. Let’s begin by creating a simple zpool, called datapool. Now that we can create these point in time snapshots, we can use them to create new datasets.
Lab: Introduction to Oracle Solaris 11 ZFS File System
Expanding a volume is just a matter of setting the dataset property volsize to a new value. Be careful when lowering the value as this will truncate the volume and you could lose data. In this next example, let’s grow our volume from 2GB to 4GB. Since there is a UFS file system on it, we’ll use growfs to make the file system use the new space.
It is simple to upgrade an existing pool, adding the new functionality. In order to do that, let’s create a pool using an older version number , and then upgrade the pool. Notice that you don’t have to grow file systems when the pool capacity increases. File systems can use whatever space is available in the pool, subject to quota limitations, which we will see in a later exercise. Now the vdev name has changed to mirror-0 to indicate that data redundancy is provided by mirroring instead of parity as it was in our first example. Before looking at some other types of vdevs, let’s destroy the datapool, and see what happens.
Doing so prevents ZFS from automatically mounting and managing a file system. Legacy tools including the mount andumount commands, and the /etc/vfstab file must be used instead. For more information about legacy mounts, see Legacy Mount Points. By using zfs list -r datapool, we are listing all of the datasets in the pool named datapool. As in the earlier exercise, all of these datasets have been automatically mounted. Now that we understand how to manage ZFS zpools, the next topic are the file systems.
In the next example, let’s move datapool/fred to a directory just called /fred. ZFS dataset quotas are used to limit the amount of space consumed by a dataset and all of its children. These properties are all described in the zpool man page.
What happens if you try to use a disk device that is already being used by another pool? This will be an interactive lab run in a GNOME terminal window. Once logged in, bring up a terminal window and become the root user. The root password is the password you defined when you have imported Oracle Solaris 11 VM appliance into Oracle VM VirtualBox. We need to add the two 8 GB virtual disks used throughout this lab to our VirtualBox guest. In the following example, the read-only mount option is temporarily set on thetank/home/neil file system.
Oracle Solaris 11 allows us to share a ZFS file system using the Server Message Block protocol that was originally created by Microsoft. The procedure for sharing files using SMB is similar to sharing files using NFS and, honestly, it’s so easy. I have attached the old drive image to the new solaris 11.3 vm and have booted the vm. Nothing appears auto-mounted (though, there are a lot of items listed when I type ‘mount’). Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search. Since the data errors were injected silently, we had to tell ZFS to compare all of the replicas.
Which will lead to problems the next time you rearrange your drives. I found this page which gave the details on importing the pool, with an alternate name, to an alternate root. If the storage is visible, and the filesystems were ZFS , you should be able just to run zpool import to see if there are any pools to import. If so, ref. the zpool man page for importing the pool to an alt pool name. Each file system dataset has a property called sharenfs. This can be set to the values that you would typically place in /etc/dfs/dfstab.
Now let’s turn on compression for datapool/bob and copy the original 1GB file. Verify that you now have 2 separate 1GB files when this is done. Compression is an interesting feature to be used with ZFS file systems. ZFS allows both compressed and noncompressed data to coexist.
Verify that no file systems are shared and that the NFS server is not running. Let’s use zfs list to get a better idea of what’s going on. Let’s take a look at some of the ZFS dataset properties. If you want to explore, see the man page for zpool and ask a lab assistant if you need help. One word of warning – this pool can no longer be imported on a system running a zpool version lower than 33.
Unlike other file system and volume managers, ZFS provides hierarchical datasets , allowing a single pool to provide many storage choices. As before, we have created a simple mirrored pool https://topbitcoinnews.org/ of two disks. In this case, the disk devices are real disks, not files. In this case we’ve told ZFS to use the entire disk . If the disk was not labeled, ZFS will write a default label.